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    [CS297 Proposal]

    [Creating Vectors]

    [Film Resources]

    [CS297 Write-Up - pdf]

    [Deliverable 1: Parser]

    [Deliverable 2: Liner]

    [Deliverable 3: Training Set]

    [Deliverable 4: Lister]

    [CS298 Report - pdf]

    [CS298 Code - zip]

    [CS298 Defense Slides - pptx]

Creating Vectors

How Are Shots and Cuts Picked

How are shots in a movie chosen? In particular, how do we decide when a shot should begin and when a shot should end? We can call this simultaneous action of one shot ending and another beginning a cut. In many if not most cases, exact cuts are picked after a scene has been filmed based on a number of factors, including how good various shots and takes worked, an actor's performance, or an actor's reaction. However, we can still can and should come up with a shot list ahead of time. We can even predict based on the dialogue and action when cuts should take place.

Here is a list of cases when we may want to cut:

  • When we want to adjust the viewer's focus
  • An actor finishes his lines
  • An actor starts his lines
  • An action begins
  • An action ends
  • A character looks at something and we cut to what he is looking at
  • Cut back to a character from an object to show his reaction
  • It's been a long time since we've had a cut
  • We want to jump ahead in time

    Cases when we may not want to cut:
  • An unimportant character talks (they have very few lines) so we focus on the main character
  • If a moment is swelling with emotion, we want to avoid a cut
  • Early in movies, cuts tend to be less likely (some opening shots are known to go on for minutes)
  • If people are walking and the camera is tracking them, it less likely we'll cut
General factors:
  • Year of film
  • Black & White or Color
  • Genre: sci-fi, action, comedy, romance, drama, music, western, etc.

Determing what type of shot each shot should be

How is the type of shot chosen in a movie? Like picking when to cut, there are many factors. Like picking when to cut may happen more often after the scene has been filmed, picking the exact type of shot is also decided in the editing room, as several different angles may be filmed for each particular moment. The good news is that the shots must be picked ahead of time, based on the script. And the type of shot also goes hand in hand with when cuts take place. So, when a cut has been chosen can influence the type of shot, and go into the vector.

Here is a list of determining factors for picking type of shot:

  • The first shot of a scene tends to be an establishing shot, thus an extreme wide shot
  • If a shot of more than one person tends to go on for a while, it's probably a medium wide two shot
  • Something like an explosion is probably an extreme wide shot
  • If people are walking, the shots will probably be wider
  • If people are sitting or statically standing, we might tend to have a closer shot
  • Cutting between two people talking will likely have shots that reflect each other
  • Two people sitting and talking usually breaks down into five types of shot: medium two shot, a medium of each(sometimes ots) and a close-up on each
    • The dialogue usually starts with the two-shot, goes to the individual mediums, and finally the close-ups with some variation
    • Comedies, dramas and romances are most likely to follow this pattern
  • The more characters are in a shot, the wider it will be
  • The more characters are in a scene, the more variety of shots types is likely


Support Vector

Cut Vector

Type Vector